When well-intentioned citizens confront unaccountable officials, their activities can become more political. I interviewed a municipal civic group leader from St. Petersburg who works on urban ecology and waste. He commented that it has become clear that government officials are responsive not to citizens, but to those “from above” who put them in their offices.
I was disappointed with the pressure of a tub and shower that were plumbed with 1/2 supply lines (2nd floor). Could be low pressure from the street, but I want to replace with 5/8. Plus, I'd like to have 2 back to back showers, one inside and one outside. So, I had intended to bring a 1 supply to both, then branch up to valves and shower head with 5/8. Finally, I thought pressure from the street was typically 55 to 70 psi and I am concerned if pvc can take that.Any thoughts?
If there is nothing visible clogging your disposal unit, the flip switch on your garbage disposal unit may have turned the unit off. This little red switch is located underneath your unit and protects against overheating and arcing situations. You can try pushing the red switch to reset the garbage disposal unit. Test your unit by turning it on. If it still won't turn on or makes a humming noise, unplug the unit or turn it off at the breaker box, and move to step 4.
With so many different models of garbage disposals to choose from, it can be difficult to figure out which one will best suit your needs, especially when you begin looking at all of the different features each model has to offer. Reading garbage disposal reviews will be much easier if you know what you are looking for. Here is a glossary of common features found on most modern garbage disposals:
Connect the new mounting assembly. Working in reverse order now, slide a rubber gasket over the bottom of the new sink flange, followed by a second metal flange. Position the new mounting ring last and insert screws into each of the open screw holes. Hold the assembly in place with one hand while you tighten the screws up against the lower flange with the other.[14]
Aside from the reviews I’ve put together, I haven’t forgotten about people who are having issues with their current food waste disposer. Below you will find some links to the information pages I’ve put together that will help you fix problems you might already have. For those of you that are confused over how to unclog a waste disposal unit, take a look at this page. On the same page, we also discuss waste disposal units that won’t power up and units that are leaking.

First drop the garbage disposal down like in step 3. Loosen the 3 bolts that tighten the flange in place. Then locate the clip that holds the bottom flange in place. Use a flat screwdriver to pop the clip out of its groove. Then pull the top flange out from the top of the sink. Clean the area around the sink opening before reinstalling the flange making sure to remove any old putty.
If the disposal jams, turn off the power and look underneath the sink. There is a place in the center of the motor shaft, on the bottom of the unit, where you can use an allen wrench to manually turn the motor. Give the motor a few manual turns to get it unstuck. Remove the Allen wrench before you try to run the motor again. Also, press the reset button/ circuit breaker on the bottom of unit, if applicable.
Your electrical supply wires should include a black (or hot) wire, a white (or neutral) wire and either a green or a bare wire, which is the ground wire. First remove the electrical cover plate on the bottom of the new disposer. Then move the new disposer into the cabinet. Screw the threaded end of the cable connector into the round hole on the bottom of the disposer. You’ll run your electrical supply wires through the cable connector and up through the access hole.
If the disposal’s still leaking, loosen the mounting bolts and push the sink flange up until it’s slightly higher than the surface of the sink. Apply fresh plumber’s putty to the threshold between the flange and the sink. When you’ve applied enough, re-attach the unit by putting the bolts back and tightening. Wipe away excess putty that squeezed out. Finish re-installing by replacing the disposal unit on the mount. Turn the disposal back on and look for leaks.
A: A leaking garbage disposal often goes unnoticed until you confront a sopping cabinet, a foul-smelling puddle, or an audible drip-drip-drip from the unit. The fix can be frustrating, too, because the leak can stem from a number of components in the system. Fortunately, with a little sleuthing, you can zero in on the leak and—depending on the exact location—stop the icky oozing and repair the component that caused it. Worst case scenario, if it turns out that the garbage disposal must be replaced, installing a new one is a reasonable do-it-yourself task for those with basic plumbing skills. Read on to keep the cash you’d otherwise hand over to a pro.

This is one of the biggest problems I’ve come across. When you start to notice a leak underneath your sink, it’s very easy to blame the quality of your garbage disposal. As you browse through the reviews on our website, you will probably notice I rarely mention a problem with leaking (if at all). This is because for the most part, the problem isn’t your unit but they way it has either been installed, or you could have a problem with the pipes it’s connected to.

Some towns and cities require a homeowner to get a permit before being allowed to install a new food disposal system. Others have outright outlawed the use of disposals due to limited sewer and water capacity. For example, an increasing number of cities in California has banned the installation of new garbage disposers in homes due to the ongoing drought the state is suffering from.

Replacing a failed garbage disposer can seem daunting. There's the usual trepidation about electricity and water, the unfamiliar sink connection and enough drain fittings to make leaks a real possibility. Then there are the hassles of comparison shopping and the suspicion that the job could run into real money. And finally, failed disposers don't often leak, at least not in the beginning, so it's easy to put things off.
The metal sink flange that sits directly inside the sink drain is typically sealed around the top with plumber’s putty (a clay-like sealant) and then secured from under the sink with bolts. If the plumber’s putty deteriorates, or the bolts loosen, the flange can no longer form a watertight seal between the sink drain and the disposal—which could cause a leak at the top of the unit.
This is a heavy-duty stopper that does the job well for my light use in the kitchen. The only remark I'll make is that I always lift out garbage disposal stoppers and strainers after each use and keep them inverted with the concave side down over the drain so they dry out completely. The stopper isn't doing anything for you in between uses, so there's no sense in keeping it seated tightly in the drain. Keep it inverted and dried out to prevent disgusting scum from accumulating rapidly.
Prior to testing the garbage disposal for leaks, unplug it at the wall outlet and turn off the power from the breaker box to prevent electrical shock. Then insert a watertight sink stopper into your sink drain and wipe the unit dry with a clean cloth. In any handy container, mix a few drops of food coloring into a few cups of water, and pour the dyed water onto the sink stopper to help you locate the leak.
One of the Camorra's strategies to gain social prestige is political patronage. The family clans became the preferred interlocutors of local politicians and public officials, because of their grip on the community. In turn, the family bosses used their political sway to assist and protect their clients against the local authorities. Through a mixture of brute force, political status, and social leadership, the Camorra family clans imposed themselves as middlemen between the local community and bureaucrats and politicians at the national level. They granted privileges and protection, and intervened in favour of their clients in return for their silence and connivance against local authorities and the police. With their political connections, the heads of the major Neapolitan families became power brokers in local and national political contexts, providing Neapolitan politicians with broad electoral support, and in return receiving benefits for their constituency.[26]

The bulk of a food waste disposer system, which includes the seals and pipes, is located beneath the kitchen sink. Most homeowners use this space to store various items, and it is not uncommon for people to bump or jar the disposal’s pipes when reaching for an item that is in close proximity. If the pipes are struck hard enough, the pipes can shift so that they are no longer sitting properly. Retaining bolts can become loose. Pipes may move, and seals can shift into an awkward position.
To reseal the leaky flange, you must first detach the garbage disposal. Start by loosening the screws securing the main drain pipe to the disposal, then loosen the screws in the metal clamp securing the dishwasher hose to the disposal and detach the drain pipe and dishwasher hose from the disposal. Loosen the screws in the mounting ring that connects the disposal to the metal mounting assembly beneath the sink, then pull down the disposal and carefully set it on a clean, dry surface. Loosen the bolts in the mounting assembly with a wrench, then pull down the mounting assembly and set it near the disposal.
I bought this two years ago when planning a kitchen remodel for our retirement home. Since I was doing the remodel myself, it took two years, working part time. During that period I managed to lose the instructions for this air switch. Thank you for providing them. Now I can install it on the front of my Ikea kitchen sink cabinet. When/if I ever am in a wheelchair or walker, I will still be able to easily reach the disposal switch. WARNING: If you have a toddler, mount this where they can't easily reach it and send a matchbox car down your sink disposal in an imaginary carwash.
Disposers range between $45 and $250, and most hold up fairly well under normal use. It's common for a $50, 1/3-hp disposer with a 1-year warranty to last 10 to 12 years. So what does more money buy? Increased longevity, longer warranties, more power and less aggravation. The better units have stainless steel components, auto-reversing starts and bigger motors. Units that reverse direction with each start greatly reduce stoppages, while larger motors can chew through larger and more varied food loads.
In the 1970s, the Sicilian Mafia convinced the Camorra to convert their cigarette smuggling routes into drug smuggling routes with the Sicilian Mafia's assistance. Not all Camorra leaders agreed, leading to the Camorra Wars that cost 400 lives. Opponents of drug trafficking lost the war. The Camorra made a fortune in reconstruction after an earthquake ravaged the Campania region in 1980. Now it specializes in cigarette smuggling and receives payoffs from other criminal groups for any cigarette traffic through Italy. The Camorra is also involved in money laundering, extortion, alien smuggling, robbery, blackmail, kidnapping, political corruption, and counterfeiting. It is believed that nearly 200 Camorra affiliates reside in this country, many of whom arrived during the Camorra Wars.[59]
A leaky garbage disposal is not only a hassle, it’s also a mess and can also result in other problems if left unfixed. If you’re inexperienced in home improvement work, diagnosing the source of the leak may seem like quite a challenge. Make your life easier with the help of the information below. Once you start eliminating each possible option on your checklist, you should be able to identify the problem quite quickly.
To fix this problem, turn off the disposal, fill the sink halfway full with soapy water, and use a cup plunger to plunge the kitchen sink for 30 seconds to one minute. If you cleared the clog, the water in the sink should start draining at a normal pace again. If you’re still have issues, you might have to remove the P-trap under the sink to get at the clog with a snake.

Sometimes plumbing problems are better left to the professionals, which is why Sansone is proud to offer quality plumbing products and plumbing services at economical pricing. Whether you’re in need of garbage disposal repair or replacement, hot water heater service or more, we have got you covered. Contact us today to learn more about our great services or schedule your appointment online.

In the 1970s, the Sicilian Mafia convinced the Camorra to convert their cigarette smuggling routes into drug smuggling routes with the Sicilian Mafia's assistance. Not all Camorra leaders agreed, leading to the Camorra Wars that cost 400 lives. Opponents of drug trafficking lost the war. The Camorra made a fortune in reconstruction after an earthquake ravaged the Campania region in 1980. Now it specializes in cigarette smuggling and receives payoffs from other criminal groups for any cigarette traffic through Italy. The Camorra is also involved in money laundering, extortion, alien smuggling, robbery, blackmail, kidnapping, political corruption, and counterfeiting. It is believed that nearly 200 Camorra affiliates reside in this country, many of whom arrived during the Camorra Wars.[59]
Inspect each of these locations while gliding a light-colored rag over the unit; the dyed water will readily show on the rag and reveal the location of the leak. If a leak isn’t immediately apparent, remove the sink stopper and pour a few more cups of dyed water down the sink drain, then check for leaks again. Leaks near the top of the unit are more likely to show themselves while the sink is plugged, while side and bottom leaks are more noticeable while the sink is unplugged.
If the water is leaking at the mounting assembly, make sure it is mounted as designed and not cocked. If the water is leaking at the dishwasher inlet, tighten the hose connector. If the water is leaking through the wall of the container body, your disposer probably need to be replaced. If the water is leaking from adjacent plumbing, tighten the connections as necessary.
Have you ever opened the cabinets under the sink to remove the trash or a handful of cleaning products, only to find everything soaked and soggy? Have you ever installed – or even had professionally installed – a brand new, state-of-the-art garbage disposal, only to have it flood your kitchen floor the next day? If so, you have a major plumbing: a leaking garbage disposal leaking from.
Connect the new mounting assembly. Working in reverse order now, slide a rubber gasket over the bottom of the new sink flange, followed by a second metal flange. Position the new mounting ring last and insert screws into each of the open screw holes. Hold the assembly in place with one hand while you tighten the screws up against the lower flange with the other.[14]

Designed to effectively grind your daily food scraps, the compact InSinkErator Badger 5 garbage disposal is the reliable choice when affordability and space are prime considerations. Featuring a powerful, 1/2 horsepower, Dura-Drive induction motor, there are no wearable parts to deliver consistent, maintenance-free performance year after year. It features a patented Quick Lock sink mount that allows for easy installation and disposal replacement. The functional Badger 5 includes an exclusive "We Come to You" 2-Year In-Home Limited Warranty.
We apologize in advanced for stating the obvious, but… garbage disposals absolutely do not last forever! No matter how well it’s made or how much money you spend, any appliance that is exposed to thousands of gallons of running water, dish soap, scraps of food, bones, and the rare (we hope) spoon or lime wedge that accidentally gets dropped into the drain is going to wear out in due time. A unit that’s working well should be able to handle a few scraps of veggies or apple slices in a matter of a couple of seconds. If your garbage disposal seems to take forever to accomplish a simple grinding job, makes a strange noise or emits a nasty smell, it may be time to install a new one.
Thank you for sharing this tutorial. My husband and I tried to fix our garbage disposal last week but we couldn’t get it to work. When we turn it on, it makes a humming noise, but nothing is blocking the blades. We might need to get a new disposal, but we’ll probably have a professional look at it before we decide. We’ll keep your tips on hand, just in case.

Using a garbage disposal is the swift and environmentally easy alternative to removing food waste from your kitchen. A garbage disposal is made to efficiently eliminate leftover food waste by grinding remains into fine particles that are easily flushed away. When shopping, look for a few key features before purchasing a garbage disposal, such as what type you will need? How much horsepower do you want? Are there any special features that you require? We also recommend to check if your waste goes to a septic tank, as this can determine the specific type you will need.
Safety and vigilance are paramount with these disposals. If you have small children in your home, then you must be on your guard to ensure that they do not stick their hands or other small objects down the disposal. You must also be careful to ensure that you do not accidentally drop any foreign objects down the disposal. For example, if a spoon were to fall into the disposal, and the disposal was turned on, it could cause quite a bit of damage to the unit before you are able to fish it out.
From the rich industrialist who wants a clear road into politics or administration to the small shopowner who wants to ask for a reduction of taxes; from the businessman trying to win a contract to a worker looking for a job in a factory; from a professional who wants more clients or greater recognition to somebody looking for an office job; from somebody from the provinces who has come to Naples to buy some goods to somebody who wants to emigrate to America; they all find somebody stepping into their path, and nearly all made use of them.[18]

However, homeowners are often cautioned against using caustic drain cleaners. Some professional plumber believe that it will not always remove clogs and may even be quite harmful. The caustic nature of this and similar products should be a cause for concern because aside from not really needing it, the ingredients known as lye or caustic soda can result in severe burns and may cause damage to the pipes.


Energy usage is not high; typically 500–1,500 W of power is used, comparable to an electric iron, but only for a very short time, totaling approximately 3–4 kWh of electricity per household per year.[34] Daily water usage varies, but is typically 1 US gallon (3.8 l) of water per person per day,[35] comparable to an additional toilet flush.[36] One survey of these food processing units found a slight increase in household water use.[37]
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