Most garbage disposals are sealed using plumber’s putty. You’ll need to detach the garbage disposal, clean off the old putty and reseal. Other types of disposals use only a flange that is tightened and compressed with screws. This may need to be replaced. Either way, this can be a big job if you don’t know what you’re doing (requires removing and replacing drain pipes, as well).
If your garbage disposal is not running, first check to see if it is plugged in and receiving power. If so then check to see whether it will turn freely with your service wrench. Most disposers are sent with a self service wrench. The wrench is silver and should be located on or near your garbage disposal. (Check under your sink!) If it will not turn freely using the wrench, the disposal is most likely jammed. Check to see if the reset button has popped out.
Locate the circuit breaker that controls power to the garbage disposal, and flip it to the "off" position before continuing. Fix or replace the main seal if it is leaking. Remove both the drain pipe and the dishwasher hose, if applicable. Insert a screwdriver into the tightening ring and turn it counterclockwise. This will release the garbage disposal unit. Inspect the main seal that sits on the top of the unit. The seal is a large, soft rubber fitting that covers the top edge of the garbage disposal. If dirt, grit or food particles have fouled the main seal, wipe it down with a damp rag and reinstall the disposal unit. If the main seal is cracked, pitted or broken, it needs to be replaced. Once a new main seal has been inserted into the garbage disposal, push it up against the mounting bracket, insert a screwdriver into the tightening ring, and turn it clockwise to lock the unit into place. Reinstall the drain pipe and dishwasher hose, if applicable.
To replace a rubber gasket, your first step will be to unplug the cord to the garbage disposal and then disconnect the drain. If you have a dishwasher installed in your kitchen, the dishwasher drain hose will need to be disconnected from the disposer. With the cord and appropriate drain lines removed, you can now grasp the sides of the mounting nut and twist it in a counter clockwise motion, which unlocks the garbage disposal. The waste disposer should then drop right down.
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To fix this problem, turn off the disposal, fill the sink halfway full with soapy water, and use a cup plunger to plunge the kitchen sink for 30 seconds to one minute. If you cleared the clog, the water in the sink should start draining at a normal pace again. If you’re still have issues, you might have to remove the P-trap under the sink to get at the clog with a snake.
This is a heavy-duty stopper that does the job well for my light use in the kitchen. The only remark I'll make is that I always lift out garbage disposal stoppers and strainers after each use and keep them inverted with the concave side down over the drain so they dry out completely. The stopper isn't doing anything for you in between uses, so there's no sense in keeping it seated tightly in the drain. Keep it inverted and dried out to prevent disgusting scum from accumulating rapidly.
If your garbage disposal just won’t turn at all, then it’s very likely that the disposal has lost power. Your unit may have blown a circuit, or it could be unplugged. First, check the plug for your garbage disposal to ensure that it’s secure. Next, locate the reset button on the underside of the unit, and push it. If neither of these things fixes the problem, look inside your electrical panel for signs of a tripped circuit.