InSinkErator garbage disposals provide a convenient and environmentally-conscious alternative to sending leftovers to landfills. Capable wastewater treatment plants can even recycle food scraps into energy and fertilizer. Plus, using garbage disposals can significantly reduce the amount of trash sent to landfills and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
Regarding the comments that the EZ Mount is flimsy or cheap or plastic, I have to respectfully disagree. The purpose of the lock ring is to compress the rubber gasket tight enough to make a seal so the thing doesn't leak. It doesn't need to be made from titanium or cast iron. Just because it isn't made from a rare earth metal doesn't make it inferior! It keeps the price down and works (so far) flawlessly. I did not need to tap the ears with a small hammer to get it to slide to the fully locked position - I was able to twist it into place with my bare non-Superman hands. I did not need to put dish soap on the ear slots but the directions suggest doing that if it is difficult to put into locked position.
Disposers range between $45 and $250, and most hold up fairly well under normal use. It's common for a $50, 1/3-hp disposer with a 1-year warranty to last 10 to 12 years. So what does more money buy? Increased longevity, longer warranties, more power and less aggravation. The better units have stainless steel components, auto-reversing starts and bigger motors. Units that reverse direction with each start greatly reduce stoppages, while larger motors can chew through larger and more varied food loads.
One of the Camorra's strategies to gain social prestige is political patronage. The family clans became the preferred interlocutors of local politicians and public officials, because of their grip on the community. In turn, the family bosses used their political sway to assist and protect their clients against the local authorities. Through a mixture of brute force, political status, and social leadership, the Camorra family clans imposed themselves as middlemen between the local community and bureaucrats and politicians at the national level. They granted privileges and protection, and intervened in favour of their clients in return for their silence and connivance against local authorities and the police. With their political connections, the heads of the major Neapolitan families became power brokers in local and national political contexts, providing Neapolitan politicians with broad electoral support, and in return receiving benefits for their constituency.[26]
If your garbage disposal is not running, first check to see if it is plugged in and receiving power. If so then check to see whether it will turn freely with your service wrench. Most disposers are sent with a self service wrench. The wrench is silver and should be located on or near your garbage disposal. (Check under your sink!) If it will not turn freely using the wrench, the disposal is most likely jammed. Check to see if the reset button has popped out.
Russian activists have come under increasing pressure since Putin returned to office in 2012. Protests have been relatively scarce after the 2011-2012 Bolotnaya demonstrations in response to election fraud. Long-standing nongovernmental groups working on environmental and human rights issues, which relied in part on funding from abroad, have been labeled “foreign agents” by Russia’s Ministry of Justice.
If the disposal is plugged in and doesn’t need to be reset, then you should check the circuit breaker. The breaker could be flipped, which would mean your disposal isn’t getting power. If that’s still not the problem, then either the outlet is dead, the circuit breaker is malfunctioning, or the disposal needs to be replaced. Check the outlet first by plugging something else into it. If the outlet works, try replacing the circuit breaker switch. If that isn’t it either, you have to replace the disposal.
STEP 5 – If you are one of those rebellious types that never listens to wise instruction, then take off any rings and make sure that your hand is lubricated with liquid dish soap or cooking oil to reduce the risk of it getting stuck in the drain opening. Also, have a phone nearby. If your hand does get stuck, you can then call someone (using your other hand, presumably) to call a friend or 911 for rescue. If at all possible, don’t call a friend with a video camera phone, because they’ll probably embarass you by broadcasting your plight on YouTube.
Some towns and cities require a homeowner to get a permit before being allowed to install a new food disposal system. Others have outright outlawed the use of disposals due to limited sewer and water capacity. For example, an increasing number of cities in California has banned the installation of new garbage disposers in homes due to the ongoing drought the state is suffering from.
Josh Crank is a freelance writer and content marketer with a background in legal journalism, travel writing, and marketing for numerous commercial industries. He's found his perfect fit at Direct Energy in writing about home maintenance and repairs, energy efficiency, and smart home technology. Josh lives with his wife, toddler son and endlessly howling beagle-basset hound mix in New Orleans.
We’ve Gone Paperless: During the last few years, the City has introduced new technologies that have encouraged employees to use electronic records whenever possible. The City Council reads and reviews their Agendas and related documents online, records are kept in an electronic format, and employees are encouraged to utilize shared networks to collaborate on projects and documents rather than printing drafts. Reducing paper usage not only helps our environment, but also saves money for office supplies.
Replacing a failed garbage disposer can seem daunting. There's the usual trepidation about electricity and water, the unfamiliar sink connection and enough drain fittings to make leaks a real possibility. Then there are the hassles of comparison shopping and the suspicion that the job could run into real money. And finally, failed disposers don't often leak, at least not in the beginning, so it's easy to put things off.

Next, you’ll connect the wires that you disconnected from the old disposer, to the new disposer. If this isn’t a replacement project, and you’re adding a new disposer where you didn’t have one before, you’ll first need to call an electrician to run the proper wires and a wall switch to the unit. For our project, the electrical wires and switch were already in place.

When rubber gaskets age, they can develop leaks. The gasket can dry up, crack, and leak when it is repeatedly exposed to long periods of disuse where no water is present in the drain pipe. Should an older garbage disposal be removed and then placed back, it will require a new rubber gasket to again achieve a watertight seal. Moreover, if a gasket is not evenly locked on all three sides, then it will develop a leak.
Make sure the reset button on the bottom is not popped out. If your disposal has a cord, make sure it is plugged in and there is power to the disposal. If your disposal has a cord, and there is no power to the disposal, check the breaker or GFI on the wall. If your disposer is hard wired into the wall, check the circuit breaker behind the electrical panel. If humming it is probably jammed. Use the small wrench that can with your disposal to unjam it and stop it from humming.
Two Aberdeen restaurateurs, Ciro Schiattarella and Michele Siciliano, were extradited to Italy for their part in the "Aberdeen Camorra". A fourth Scottish associate made history by becoming the first foreign member of the Camorra and is currently serving a jail sentence in the UK. It has been reported that he also receives a monthly salary, legal assistance and protection.[55]
Here are some problems that every garbage disposal can run into, old or new. Learning about your garbage disposal and how it works (and how it doesn’t work, of course!) is the first step to decide if it simply needs a repair or if it needs to be replaced all together. One thing that stands for any and all situations: never stick your hands down the drain!
Kitchen garbage disposals are wondrous appliances, helping to clean away unwanted food scraps in a jiffy. Even though they are normally self-cleaning, garbage disposals need a little love and attention from time to time. This keeps them in tip-top condition and prevents odors from forming. This article will provide you with easy step-by-step instructions on how to safely clean your garbage disposal and effectively eliminate odors, while also providing some useful info on garbage disposal maintenance.
This thing is exactly as everyone else has described. I, like many others, replaced an old ISE Badger with this unit, and it's heads and shoulders above in quality, function, quietness, etc. It grinds everything in seconds (as opposed to batting it around in the chamber for multiple cycles like the Badger). The original plumbing from the Badger lined right up and worked the first time. I'm very pleased with this item... although, there is one thing that I want to note; I read somewhere that if you use the EZ mount system that comes with it, you won't need plumber's putty - one can just use the gasket. This is true ONLY if using a flat lipped SS sink, and even then the rubber seal is optional as opposed to the putty (you can use only one, the putty or the seal with a SS sink, but not both). It's better said that you WILL need plumber's putty, and if you have a stainless steel sink, you have the option to use the thin rubber gasket (I'd use plumber's putty). Other than that minor detail (which made me take an unexpected run to our local hardware store), this unit is great. The one last thing I will say is around quietness. I've read some reviews that talk about how quiet or not quiet it is. I don't understand the desire to have an ultra-quiet garbage disposal. I mean, one needs to run water while the run the disposal, and a full-blast of the faucet going into a spinning basket creates a notable level of sound anyway, plus I want to be able to hear the load of the disposal so I can know when it's clear. This unit is by no means noisy, but I just don't see the desire to go ultra-quiet. Again, this big-boy Waste King is awesome.
Trim the discharge tube as needed. If you’ve upgraded to a larger disposal or one of a different model, there’s a good chance that the discharge tube won’t be the right length to connect to the ground plumbing valve. Fortunately, this is a simple fix—mark the spot on the tube where it should line up with the drain pipe, then cut it to size with a hacksaw. It should be a perfect fit.[19]
First, is it loud or quiet? It really depends on which review you read, apparently. I believe it depends on more than that, such as what kind of sink is it being installed under - a stainless steel or a porcelain coated cast iron sink? One is very thin and flexible and will not block out as much noise or damp vibrations as effectively as a heavy cast iron sink. I have found the overall noise level to be a lot like the Badger 5 that I replaced. My wife thinks it sounds a bit different but neither louder nor quieter. It also depends on whether this is your first disposer (it is certainly louder than not having one) or a replacement. Bottom line, it's typically run for a few seconds, with the water running too, as you are cleaning up after meal (not in the middle of the night when everyone's trying to sleep) and it's no louder or quieter than the rest. I wouldn't let that be a deciding factor unless you have different criteria. If so, you can pay twice as much for that other "Elite" one by another manufacturer that is CR-rated as the quietest one. In my case I couldn't justify the added cost.
A clogged garbage disposal unit can leak when you try to operate it without removing the clogging. What clogs up garbage disposals? Normally this would be expandable food like rice and pasta. Even large animal bones can also result in clogging and possible leak. Although coffee grounds help eliminate odors, allowing it to accumulate in the drain of the disposer will result in clogging and potential leak.
One last thought - Beef bones? I see that Consumer Reports tests these things by measuring the fineness of the grind using beef bones. Do people really put beef bones down a garbage disposal on purpose? You might think I'm babying mine, or maybe that's why I didn't have excessive vibration when I use it, but I'll put the beef bones in the trash and grind up the rest of the stuff with this and be just fine for many years to come, I hope!
First drop the garbage disposal down like in step 3. Loosen the 3 bolts that tighten the flange in place. Then locate the clip that holds the bottom flange in place. Use a flat screwdriver to pop the clip out of its groove. Then pull the top flange out from the top of the sink. Clean the area around the sink opening before reinstalling the flange making sure to remove any old putty.

InSinkErator is a brand name that is well-known for their design and manufacturing of waste disposal systems and instant hot water dispensers. John Hammes founded the company in 1927 in Racine, Wisconsin, where their headquarters remain today. Hammes is credited with designing and producing the first “in sink” waste disposal system, and the InSinkErator is a play on the word “incinerator”. Currently, InSinkErator produces and markets garbage disposal systems under the Evolution and Badger Series brand names.


We apologize in advanced for stating the obvious, but… garbage disposals absolutely do not last forever! No matter how well it’s made or how much money you spend, any appliance that is exposed to thousands of gallons of running water, dish soap, scraps of food, bones, and the rare (we hope) spoon or lime wedge that accidentally gets dropped into the drain is going to wear out in due time. A unit that’s working well should be able to handle a few scraps of veggies or apple slices in a matter of a couple of seconds. If your garbage disposal seems to take forever to accomplish a simple grinding job, makes a strange noise or emits a nasty smell, it may be time to install a new one.
While you were testing the red switch at the bottom of the unit, you may have noticed a small opening in the center. If the unit is clogged or humming, you can try to free up the unit by using the wrenchette (Hex-Torx key) that came with your unit or a 1/4 inch allen wrench. Simply place the wrench into the center hole and move it back and forth until the whatever is clogging your unit is dislodged. Once your unit is moving freely, turn it back on to test. If the unit still won't turn on, it may be necessary to take the unit apart.
Disposals can leak at a couple different places. Start by turning off the disposal at its base. Then, find the disposal mount and remove the unit by turning it counterclockwise from the bottom. Once the disposal has been removed from the mount, you should be able to see the three mounting bolts. Tighten these bolts to make sure they’re not leaking.

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Flip the disposer over and unscrew the electrical cover plate on the bottom of the disposer by removing the cover plate screw. Again, be sure the power to the unit has been turned off at the electrical supply panel. Then disconnect the electrical cable connector. Pull out the wires and remove the wire nuts. Also unscrew the ground wire from the green ground screw. Be sure to save the electrical cable connector so you can use it again.
Since the mid-1990s, the Camorra has taken over the handling of refuse disposal in the region of Campania, with disastrous results for the environment and the health of the general population. Heavy metals, industrial waste, chemicals and household garbage are frequently mixed together, then dumped near roads and burnt to avoid detection, leading to severe soil and air pollution.
We’re starting with clogs because they’re actually only *kind of* garbage disposal problems. Technically, garbage disposals can get jammed (see below!), but if water stands in your sink and takes forever to drain, it’s probably because the kitchen sink pipe has been clogged. Many different materials can cause clogs, from sediment, to scale, to grease, to food remains. Depending on the culprit, clogs may begin to smell. Ideally, your garbage disposal should have ground up debris enough that it wouldn’t clog anything up, but nobody’s perfect.
This new one some how makes it quiet when using the disposal. I have no idea how old the other one was, it was here when we moved in. It was flimsy and would let dirty water come up. Cleaning the splash guard and the drain it went into didn't help at all. The new is firm and sits in the drain level. My daughter was putting the old one slanted some to keep it in there. After 2 1/2 years it was falling apart. I wish I'd bought one when we first moved in. This is the first garbage disposal for me but now I've learned what to expect from it. I recommend this product and will buy another if I'm still here when this one starts to get flimsy!
Rotate the disposer to align the disposer with the drain or the discharge tube, slide the flange over drain pipe or discharge tube and insert the gasket into the discharge outlet. Then screw in the bolts that secure the flange to the disposer. Reconnect all the plumbing connections as well as the dishwasher inlet hose. Then turn the power back on at the electrical supply panel and test the unit for leaks, making sure to run cold water while the unit is running.
I'm not what you'd call a handyman, although I've been working to get better at that. I will now at least try a home project before passing on it. So, when our 15-year garbage disposal died I had another opportunity. I determined our old unit to be a Badger 5 1/2 HP (this exact item). I didn't have time to wait for the item to arrive from Amazon so I went to Home Depot and coughed up an extra $20 for the Badger 500 - Home Depot's branded version of this item. They are identical except for the name & sticker.
Look for a jam. Something too tough to grind, such as a piece of glass, could be jamming the motor. Turn off the power and water, then unplug the disposal. (If it’s hardwired, turn off the breaker.) Remove the rubber baffle inside the drain-most just lift out-and shine a flashlight into the hole. Fish out the obstruction with a pair of tongs or needle-nose pliers.
The 2 800 RPM motor-powered dual stainless-steel swivel The 2 800 RPM motor-powered dual stainless-steel swivel impellers built into this GE 1/2 HP Continuous-Feed Garbage Disposal join forces with a 2-level pre-cutter to make it easy to grind undesirable waste into easily drainable particles. The disposer's large-capacity disposer chamber is comprised of a cold-rolled carbon steel armature shaft ...  More + Product Details Close
There you have it. If you have questions about this or any other home improvement project, be sure to read our list of Frequently Asked Questions for this video. And be sure to print out our Project Instructions, which includes a Tools and Materials checklist, before visiting your local independent home improvement retailer. That’s where you’ll find all the products and helpful advice to complete your project. If you’re not sure where to find your local store, check out our Store Locator.
Thank you for sharing this tutorial. My husband and I tried to fix our garbage disposal last week but we couldn’t get it to work. When we turn it on, it makes a humming noise, but nothing is blocking the blades. We might need to get a new disposal, but we’ll probably have a professional look at it before we decide. We’ll keep your tips on hand, just in case.
An affordable option that offers outstanding value, the Waste King Legend Series comes backed by a solid five-year warranty. The stainless steel disposal is compact enough to install under most sinks. The continuous feed design means this disposal requires just a flip of a switch. It runs very quietly, but it is still powerful enough to grind food waste efficiently.
In the short story "The Fate of Faustina" by E. W. Hornung, it is revealed that the main character and criminal-in-hiding A. J. Raffles has made an enemy of a high-level member of the Camorra from his time spent in Italy. In the sequel story, "The Last Laugh", the Camorra try to realize that threat and kill Raffles; however, Raffles not only saves himself from his attackers but also tricks them into poisoning themselves.
Here are some problems that every garbage disposal can run into, old or new. Learning about your garbage disposal and how it works (and how it doesn’t work, of course!) is the first step to decide if it simply needs a repair or if it needs to be replaced all together. One thing that stands for any and all situations: never stick your hands down the drain!
Don’t you wish good things could last forever? You’ve been there. We have, too. But the reality is that things don’t usually go the way we plan. When you least expect it, life throws a curve ball your way. The way kitchen appliances work is no different, and that especially means the ones we use every day. Garbage disposals are an essential kitchen convenience for most homeowners that are used pretty much every day. Prepping food and cooking becomes much easier when peels and other scraps can just be tossed into the sink and straight down the drain, but over time, all that will take its toll.

A sink flange is the uppermost portion of a garbage disposal.  It is the point where the sink, drain, and garbage disposal meet, and it keeps debris from clogging your drain.  If you have a leak at the uppermost area of your garbage disposal, the source is likely your garbage disposal flange.  The two most likely reasons for a flange leak are that the mounting bolts have loosened and that the plumber’s putty has failed.
After watching this video, I decided I could replace my garbage disposer myself. Honestly, I think your site completely misrepresents how VERY difficult it is to hold up a 20+ pound disposal unit firmly up against the mounting hardware as you are literally crammed under your kitchen sink and then try and somehow get all three tabs to slide into place. I was very disappointed and, after 4 nights of trying and retrying, finally just called a plumber. Please don’t show anyone lifting something that is big and heavy and make it seems as light as a feather. Shame. Shame.
Regarding the comments that the EZ Mount is flimsy or cheap or plastic, I have to respectfully disagree. The purpose of the lock ring is to compress the rubber gasket tight enough to make a seal so the thing doesn't leak. It doesn't need to be made from titanium or cast iron. Just because it isn't made from a rare earth metal doesn't make it inferior! It keeps the price down and works (so far) flawlessly. I did not need to tap the ears with a small hammer to get it to slide to the fully locked position - I was able to twist it into place with my bare non-Superman hands. I did not need to put dish soap on the ear slots but the directions suggest doing that if it is difficult to put into locked position.
You can buy a 1/3-hp disposal for $80 or less, but our experts suggest that a more expensive unit with at least 3/4 hp would be a better choice. The more powerful the motor, the less chance it will jam. In addition, higher-priced disposals are generally quieter and have longer warranties. If you need to replace the splash guard guard as part of your garbage disposal installation, take a look at this guide.
Sometimes plumbing problems are better left to the professionals, which is why Sansone is proud to offer quality plumbing products and plumbing services at economical pricing. Whether you’re in need of garbage disposal repair or replacement, hot water heater service or more, we have got you covered. Contact us today to learn more about our great services or schedule your appointment online.
With the garbage disposal shopping, I quickly learned that the big brands are Waste King and Sinkerator and that those were the two best places to start. After going over several models and two trips to two separate best buys (who, by the way, really need to amp up their customer service model) I cheated and had my mom choose one for me. Sue me. So she chose this particular brand, and wow—it works really well, I can’t believe how easy it makes my life. I can put bones, and tough food products down the disposal, and it makes cooking really simple. Go figure.
If you're replacing a commercial garbage disposal, then you'll either want the Drain Strainer with Crown Adapter or the Drain Strainer XL. Both of these models have a universal Crown Adapter on top that serves as a funnel to cover the hole once the commercial garbage disposal has been removed. Note that it doesn't actually attach to the sink bowl, but you'll adjust the legs to get your unit flush underneath the bottom of the sink.
Attach the pipes. You will attach a 90-degree disposal drainpipe to the disposal and the tailpiece to the other sink drain. There should be p-traps on both the disposal and the tailpiece from the other sink and they should be level to one another. Use straight pipes and a T-fitting to connect both drains into one line and route the drainpipes into the main drain.
While it certainly isn’t always necessary to replace your disposal just because you’re getting a new sink or updating your kitchen appliances, it may be a good time to do so, especially if your unit is over ten years old. Since you already have professionals on the site, it may be more cost efficient and convenient to go ahead and replace an older unit instead of waiting for it to fail at a future date.
This thing is exactly as everyone else has described. I, like many others, replaced an old ISE Badger with this unit, and it's heads and shoulders above in quality, function, quietness, etc. It grinds everything in seconds (as opposed to batting it around in the chamber for multiple cycles like the Badger). The original plumbing from the Badger lined right up and worked the first time. I'm very pleased with this item... although, there is one thing that I want to note; I read somewhere that if you use the EZ mount system that comes with it, you won't need plumber's putty - one can just use the gasket. This is true ONLY if using a flat lipped SS sink, and even then the rubber seal is optional as opposed to the putty (you can use only one, the putty or the seal with a SS sink, but not both). It's better said that you WILL need plumber's putty, and if you have a stainless steel sink, you have the option to use the thin rubber gasket (I'd use plumber's putty). Other than that minor detail (which made me take an unexpected run to our local hardware store), this unit is great. The one last thing I will say is around quietness. I've read some reviews that talk about how quiet or not quiet it is. I don't understand the desire to have an ultra-quiet garbage disposal. I mean, one needs to run water while the run the disposal, and a full-blast of the faucet going into a spinning basket creates a notable level of sound anyway, plus I want to be able to hear the load of the disposal so I can know when it's clear. This unit is by no means noisy, but I just don't see the desire to go ultra-quiet. Again, this big-boy Waste King is awesome.
Release the old disposal from the mounting ring. At the top of the unit you should see a thin metal ring with 3 separate lugs, or protruding arms. Take hold of these lugs with one hand and twist the entire ring counterclockwise about 1.5 inches (3.8 cm) to dislodge the old unit. Set it aside on a sheet of newspaper or unfolded rag to keep from making a mess.[4]
Most seals and pipes are located beneath your kitchen sink.  It is common for these pipes to be jarred when people are using that space.  If the pipes are struck hard enough, they can shift and sit improperly, causing retaining bolts to loosen and seals to be shifted into awkward positions.  If your leak is coming from this area, you will need to reattach and reseal these pipes.  Fixing this issue may require an experienced, licensed plumber.
If the unit is hardwired to the house then you have to use a screwdriver to remove the plate covering the wire connections on the disposal. Disconnect the exposed wires and then remove the plate covering the junction box on the wall. Untwist the wire caps securing the disposal wires to your home wires and set the disposal’s wires on the side. Twist the wire capes over the exposed wires in the junction box, put the wires into the junction box and reattach the junction box plate.
Run cold water while the disposal is on. Keep disposer and water running for 30 to 60 seconds AFTER the waste matter has cleared your drain. The waste still has a distance to go. Cold water keeps the motor, bearings and shredder assembly from overheating. It also lets the waste go down easier because the water is pushing it down. Don't use hot water, because it can melt fat and allow it to re-solidify as a blockage further down in the drain.

The best part about this common issue is that in most instances anyone can fix the problem regardless of their skill-set. Additionally, you won't necessarily have to purchase any tools in order to get your disposal back in working mode. Most disposals come with an Allen wrench attached to them which should be the only tool you may need to fix a humming garbage disposal.
Jump up ^ "Sub-committee onpo East-West Economic Co-operation and Convergence and Sub-committee on Civilian Security and Co-operation Trip Report: Visit to Rome / Palermo Secretariat Report 6–8 May 1998 (Prefect Gennaro Monaco, Deputy-Chief of Police and Chief of the Section of Criminal Police)". NATO Parliamentary Assembly. August 18, 1998. Retrieved 2009-01-24.

Whether you repaired or replaced the leaking garbage disposal, test for any missed problem spots. Wipe the unit dry with a clean cloth, then unplug the sink drain (if plugged) and pour a few cups of dyed water into the drain once more. Use a flashlight to inspect the entire unit. If you don’t observe a leak, turn on the power to the disposal from your breaker box and plug in the disposal at the wall outlet.

In 2004 and 2005 the Di Lauro clan and the so-called Scissionisti di Secondigliano fought a bloody feud which came to be known in the Italian press as the Scampia feud. The result was over 100 street killings. At the end of October 2006 a new series of murders took place in Naples between 20 competing clans, that cost 12 lives in 10 days. The Interior Minister Giuliano Amato decided to send more than 1,000 extra police and carabinieri to Naples to fight crime and protect tourists.[31] Despite this, in the following year there were over 120 murders.[citation needed]
Your garbage disposer is not draining, has water leaks, creates weird noises, or has horrible odors? Troubleshoot your Faulty Disposer. If you are experiencing garbage disposal problems, you will find solutions on our checklist below to help you repair it. Before going out and spending a few hundred dollars on a new one, troubleshoot your existing sink garbage disposer to find the problem.
Some other kinds of garbage disposal units are powered by water pressure, rather than electricity. Instead of the turntable and grind ring described above, this alternative design has a water-powered unit with an oscillating piston with blades attached to chop the waste into fine pieces.[27] Because of this cutting action, they can handle fibrous waste. Water-powered units take longer than electric ones for a given amount of waste and need fairly high water pressure to function properly.[citation needed]
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